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Published Papers

These are the papers that EII has published in professional journals or conferences. In most cases EII does not hold the copyright to these papers; thus we can only provide the links to the relevant websites from which the papers may be downloaded.

A Comparison of Several Dynamic Programming Models of the Made-to-Order Production Situation
"A Comparison of Several Dynamic Programming Models of the Made to-Order Production Situation," Operations Research Letters, Vol. 5 (1986), 87-92 (with N.K. Womer and M.M. Tarimcilar). This paper examines the relationships among several dynamic programming models of the made-to-order production situation. The models consider the impacts of both learning and production rate changes on optimal program costs. The comparisons among the models suggest that a type of economic duality links the solutions. The results of this research suggest a method of transformation which may provide a useful means for finding tractable solutions to similar dynamic programming problems.
A Discrete Dynamic Optimization Model for Made-to-Order Cost Analysis
"A Discrete Dynamic Optimization Model for Made-to-Order Cost Analysis," Decision Sciences, Vol. 16 (1985), 73-90 (with N.K. Womer and M.M. Tarimcilar). A model is presented that yields optimal production rates for a firm producing a contracted order. The model is unique in that it considers the influence of production rate and learning on total program cost. An application to the specific characteristics of two military production programs is presented. As demonstrated by the application, models of this type may be used as decision-making tools when negotiating the cost impact of contract modifications.
A Dynamic Cost Function for an Airframe Production Program
"A Dynamic Cost Function for an Airframe Production Program," Engineering Costs and Production Economics, Vol. 7 (1983), 213-27 (with N.K. Womer). This research represents an extension of previous work in the area of estimating military airframe program costs. The effort is unique in that it yields a model of the production process that considers the impact of learning, production rate, and (implicitly) facility size on total program costs. To provide an empirical test of model validity the parameters are estimated for the C141 airframe program. The model's use as a prototype for models of ongoing production programs is illustrated by estimating the cost impact of exogenous changes in the program delivery schedules, e.g. the “crashes” and “strech-outs” that frequently characterize military airframe production programs.
A Generalization of the Learning Curve
"A Generalization of the Learning Curve," The European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 26 (1986), 205-216 (with J.R. Dorroh and N.K. Womer). This paper presents a generalization of models that relate required resources to accumulated experience. These learning curve models are often used as planning tools in made-to-order production programs. This is especially true in the acquisition of major defense items. However, learning curves are deficient in that they only consider a single cost determinant, cumulative experience. The model presented in this paper considers both cumulative experience and production rate as cost determinants. As a decision application it is shown how the model may be used to generate the type of program cost data that is used in planning for made-to-order programs.
A Method for Repricing Aircraft Procurement Programs
"A Method for Repricing Aircraft Procurement Programs," Operations Research, Vol. 37 (1989), 255-265 (with S.J. Balut and N.K. Womer). Planned annual procurement quantities for defense weapon systems are often altered after production starts. Department of Defense analysts support the decision process by providing cost estimates for alternatives to ongoing procurement programs. This paper presents a method for repricing aircraft programs under a proposed change in quantity. The method is an extension of the standard learning curve model that accomodates the redistribution of fixed costs at the contractor's plant.
A Model of the Controller Responses of the Human Temperature Regulating System to Changes in Water Temperature
"A Model of the Controller Responses of the Human Temperature Regulating System to Changes in Water Temperature," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 29 (1987), 385-397 (with M. Neghabat and J.L. Ringuest). The objective of this study is to develop models of the controller mechanism of the human temperature regulating system in a water environment . Both univariate and transfer function models are developed for metabolic heat production, and a mean squared error criterion is used to compare the performance of the two models. The models developed for the controller mechanism are validated in the context of a complete simulation model which is modified to include the controller model derived in this study. The results of the validation procedure show that the controller model is statistically valid.
A Model of the Controller Responses of the Human Temperature Regulating System to Changes in Air Temperature
"A Model of the Controller Responses of the Human Temperature Regulating System to Changes in Air Temperature," Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Vol. 12 (1989), 277-288 (with J.L. Ringuest and M. Neghabat). The objective of this study is to develop models of the controller mechanism of the human temperature regulating system. The emphasis of this research is on controller response to changes in air temperature. The controller responses are: changes in metabolic heat production; changes in evaporative heat loss; and alterations in surface blood flow. Time series modeling procedures are used to develop both univariate and transfer function models for metabolic heat production and evaporative heat loss. Because of the nature of the available data for surface blood flow, time series models are not developed for this controller response.
A Preemptive Value Function Method Approach for Multiobjective Linear Programming Problems
"A Preemptive Value Function Method Approach for Multiobjective Linear Programming Problems," Decision Sciences, Vol. 14 (1983), 76-86 (with J.L. Ringuest). Many common decision-making situations require integration of a number of objectives or goals into a single objective function to be optimized. A number of techniques for performing this analysis are presented in the literature. These procedures generally require a tradeoff between realism and tractability. The present approach uses the idea of preemptive priority levels with an approximate value function at each level. An efficient experimental design is used to assess directly a quadratic approximation of the multiattribute value functions. An existing algorithm is then used to solve the resulting problem. This procedure is shown to give good results when compared to both the value-function method and goal programming.
A Regulatory Interpretation of DoD Profit Policy
"A Regulatory Interpretation of DoD Profit Policy," The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 74 (1992), 394-403 (with M.S. Goldberg and T.P. Frazier). The market in which the Department of Defense (DoD) procures military equipment is not fully competitive. Apart from foreign military sales, DoD is the sole purchaser of major items of military equipment. Moreover, the number of potential manufacturers of these items is often quite small as well. The DoD applies a set of rules, known as the weighted guidelines, in determining the markups paid to manufacturers. The weighted guidelines are promulgated in the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR). In particular, the FAR allows for two components of markup above cost. One component is proportional to total allowable costs on the contract, and the other component is proportional to the net book value of the capital employed in production.
Aligning Strategic Objectives With Organizational Processes: A Methodology for Virtual Enterprise Implementation
"Aligning Strategic Objectives With Organizational Processes: A Methodology for Virtual Enterprise Implementation," In Strategic Management of the Manufacturing Value Chain, Umit S. Bititci and Allan S. Carrie (Editors). Boston: Kluwer Academic Press, 1998 (with R. Sommer) (Finalist for best paper award at the IFIP WG 5.7 meeting). This paper addresses the regulatory, policy and organizational issues that must be pre-engineered into business processes before a virtual relationship can exist between potential partners. Our research is centered on two crucial concepts: (1) the development of a strategic Operational Virtual Enterprise Methodology that facilitates the rapid formation and reconfiguration (realignment) of organizational processes in response to an external order that necessitates the formation of a virtual organization, and (2) the implementation and validation of the Operational Virtual Enterprise Methodology in a manufacturing environment.
An Application of Multiattribute Utility Theory to the Planning of Emergency Medical Services
"An Application of Multiattribute Utility Theory to the Planning of Emergency Medical Services," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 18 (1984), 273-280 (with J.R. Baker, M.A. McKnew, and J.L. Ringuest). This research considers the problem of relating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to patient outcome. The hypothesis is that response time alone may be misleading as an EMS performance criterion. This research uses methods for approximating multiattribute utility functions to consider both response time and on-the-scene care. The final result is an optimization problem where the response time and desired personnel requirements are decision variables. These are important inputs in the planning for Emergency Medical Services.
An Interactive Multi-Objective Gradient Search
"An Interactive Multi-Objective Gradient Search," Operations Research Letters, Vol. 12 (1992), 53-58. (with J.L. Ringuest). In recent years there has been much interest in developing interactive algorithms for solving multiple objective optimization problems. In this paper we present an approach for estimating the gradient within a line-search algorithm. The approach uses a numerical approximation to the gradient obtained by fitting a first-order experimental design to the decision maker's value function. Test results indicate that the algorithm provides accurate utility predictions for numerically assessed gradient vectors, relative to analytical gradient vectors.
Architecture-driven Enterprise Integration
Published in the International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2008. Business Process Management (BPM) is an ongoing topic of interest for contemporary managers. This interest is documented by a long sequence of methods, techniques and tools emerging and declining in favour over the years. This paper takes a more holistic approach to BPM, moving from efficiency generating techniques, and focusing on BPM as the key element in an approach to achieving total enterprise integration. The approach, Architecture-driven Enterprise Integration, has many dimensions, but BPM is central to aligning information technologies and systems to management objectives and related requirements. Aspects of the approach are demonstrated with documentation from various implementation projects and vendor products. A major contribution of this paper is an understanding that BPM must be examined in a more holistic fashion, and that many BPM methods are severely constrained in their ability to generate radical and significant improvement inside of organisations.
Composite Supply Chain Applications
Thomas Gulledge, Scott Hiroshige and Danielle Manning (2011). Composite Supply Chain Applications, Supply Chain Management - New Perspectives, Sanda Renko (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-633-1, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/composite-supply-chain-applications Software offerings in the genre we call “Model-to-Execution” provide a viable means of supporting customized business processes while keeping interfacing and interface maintenance costs under control. Our primary hypothesis is that, via Model-to-Execution software solutions, logistics business processes can be described in business terms and then fully automated. To test this hypothesis, we perform an actual implementation project across multiple vendor systems. The paper introduces the concept of Model-to-Execution, describes the case study, and discusses some of our lessons learned.
Condition-based Maintenance and the product improvement process
Computers in Industry Volume 61, Issue 9, December 2010, Pages 813-832 Trends and Challenges in Production and Supply Chain Management The evolution of enterprise services is changing the approach for enabling Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) business processes. Enabling systems are migrating to process- and service-oriented solutions. In particular, the paper demonstrates how the new technologies can be used to enable a critical process that links vehicle health maintenance to PLM. Our hypothesis is that Condition-based Maintenance (CBM) and PLM integration is achievable through composite application design. The key process for linking CBM to PLM must convert prognostic and diagnostic information into actionable information that can be directed into a project-level PLM environment that supports the end-to-end product improvement process. To test this hypothesis, we designed a composite application within the context of a Small Business Innovative Research project that is sponsored by the US government. This paper motivates the problem from the strategic level to the implementation level and describes the successful test of the hypothesis.
Cost Analysis in the Time Domain
"Cost Analysis in the Time Domain," The European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 68 (1993), 334-343 (with J.D. Camm and N.K. Womer). Government cost analysts must often construct models using production data that are limited by a contract between the producer and the government. The producer usually does not share cost data with the government unless the contract requires that data are reported. Also, the data that are reported are often not in the proper form for constructing mathematical models; that is, cost data are often provided by production unit or lot, while economic and accounting data are usually reported by time period. This paper provides a mathematical link between unit or lot data and time series data; that is, between the units domain and the time domain. The analysis is relevant for made-to-order production, the case where a relatively small number of specialized items are produced to contractual order, as in defense and other government contract situations.
Cross-Functional Process Integration and the Integrated Data Environment
“Cross-Functional Process Integration and the Integrated Data Environment,” In J.D. Elzinga, T. Gulledge, and C.-Y. Lee (Editors), Business Process Engineering: Advancing the State of the Art. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999 (with R. Sommer and M. Tarimcilar). This paper demonstrates how to plan for large-scale enterprise integration implementations using modern integrated planning methodologies. The focus is on cross-functional process integration in a manufacturing environment. The subjects covered are: Integrated Data Environment, system alignment and standard software solutions, planning for the Integrated Data Environment, vertical and horizontal integration, and integrated enterprise modeling.
Enterprise Service Oriented Architectures and End-to-End Business Process Execution
Published in Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 268-277 (2007). [This paper was the subject of a keynote presentation with the same name at the 36th International Conference on Computers & Industrial Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, 2006.] The evolution of Enterprise Services is changing the approach for enabling capability delivery. Enabling systems continue to migrate to process- and service-oriented solutions, requiring new approaches for architecting composite solutions. This paper presents, using examples from our work, the state-of-the art in architecting end-to-end solutions for delivering logistics capability from the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to the customer. The topic is important, because the implementation paradigm is shifting from families of interfaced systems to process-oriented composite applications, and many analysts are predicting that this new system integration paradigm will prevail. This transition is well underway in the private sector and is in the early stages of transition in the public sector. The paper provides a review of new service-oriented concepts within the context of some implementation projects in the USA.
Estimation Problems in Rate-Augmented Learning Curves
“Estimation Problems in Rate-Augmented Learning Curves,” Accepted for Publication in IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 44 (1997), 91-97 (with M.M. Tarimcilar and N.K. Womer). In situations where production rate is variable, the learning curve can provide unreliable results. One proposed solution to the “production rate” problem is to multiplicatively augment the learning curve with a production rate explanatory variable, while widely used by cost analysts, the rate-augmented learning curve has not proved reliable. It has been assumed, but not demonstrated, that data and measurement problems lead to unreliable parameter estimates. In this paper we demonstrate that the parameter estimates are a function of the units in which the cost and delivery data are measured; hence, the estimates are always arbitrary. We propose a procedure for obtaining meaningful estimates, but it requires assigning weights to the cost and delivery time data.
Integrated Electronic Commerce: An International Laboratory for Business-to-Business Integration
“Integrated Electronic Commerce: An International Laboratory for Business-to-Business Integration,” In Global Production Management, Kai Mertins, Oliver Krause, and Burkhard Schallock (Editors). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999 (with P. Chang, P. Litvak, P. Norton, R. Sommer, A.J.C. Trappey, and C. Trappey). Critical issues are emerging in the establishment of virtual environments for international business-to-business e-commerce. One issue is whether all parties (primes and suppliers) can manage extended relationships with information provided by integrated standard software. The issue is more complicated with the inclusion of international trading partners. The joint industry/university laboratory that is described in this paper was designed to explore these complex issues. This paper describes the project, our shared international laboratory, the planned and completed experiments, and interesting results that have been uncovered while executing the project.