Home Resources Featured Published Papers

Featured Published Papers

A Method for Repricing Aircraft Procurement Programs
"A Method for Repricing Aircraft Procurement Programs," Operations Research, Vol. 37 (1989), 255-265 (with S.J. Balut and N.K. Womer). Planned annual procurement quantities for defense weapon systems are often altered after production starts. Department of Defense analysts support the decision process by providing cost estimates for alternatives to ongoing procurement programs. This paper presents a method for repricing aircraft programs under a proposed change in quantity. The method is an extension of the standard learning curve model that accomodates the redistribution of fixed costs at the contractor's plant.
A Regulatory Interpretation of DoD Profit Policy
"A Regulatory Interpretation of DoD Profit Policy," The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 74 (1992), 394-403 (with M.S. Goldberg and T.P. Frazier). The market in which the Department of Defense (DoD) procures military equipment is not fully competitive. Apart from foreign military sales, DoD is the sole purchaser of major items of military equipment. Moreover, the number of potential manufacturers of these items is often quite small as well. The DoD applies a set of rules, known as the weighted guidelines, in determining the markups paid to manufacturers. The weighted guidelines are promulgated in the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR). In particular, the FAR allows for two components of markup above cost. One component is proportional to total allowable costs on the contract, and the other component is proportional to the net book value of the capital employed in production.
Aligning Strategic Objectives With Organizational Processes: A Methodology for Virtual Enterprise Implementation
"Aligning Strategic Objectives With Organizational Processes: A Methodology for Virtual Enterprise Implementation," In Strategic Management of the Manufacturing Value Chain, Umit S. Bititci and Allan S. Carrie (Editors). Boston: Kluwer Academic Press, 1998 (with R. Sommer) (Finalist for best paper award at the IFIP WG 5.7 meeting). This paper addresses the regulatory, policy and organizational issues that must be pre-engineered into business processes before a virtual relationship can exist between potential partners. Our research is centered on two crucial concepts: (1) the development of a strategic Operational Virtual Enterprise Methodology that facilitates the rapid formation and reconfiguration (realignment) of organizational processes in response to an external order that necessitates the formation of a virtual organization, and (2) the implementation and validation of the Operational Virtual Enterprise Methodology in a manufacturing environment.
Architecture-driven Enterprise Integration
Published in the International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2008. Business Process Management (BPM) is an ongoing topic of interest for contemporary managers. This interest is documented by a long sequence of methods, techniques and tools emerging and declining in favour over the years. This paper takes a more holistic approach to BPM, moving from efficiency generating techniques, and focusing on BPM as the key element in an approach to achieving total enterprise integration. The approach, Architecture-driven Enterprise Integration, has many dimensions, but BPM is central to aligning information technologies and systems to management objectives and related requirements. Aspects of the approach are demonstrated with documentation from various implementation projects and vendor products. A major contribution of this paper is an understanding that BPM must be examined in a more holistic fashion, and that many BPM methods are severely constrained in their ability to generate radical and significant improvement inside of organisations.
Composite Supply Chain Applications
Thomas Gulledge, Scott Hiroshige and Danielle Manning (2011). Composite Supply Chain Applications, Supply Chain Management - New Perspectives, Sanda Renko (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-633-1, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/composite-supply-chain-applications Software offerings in the genre we call “Model-to-Execution” provide a viable means of supporting customized business processes while keeping interfacing and interface maintenance costs under control. Our primary hypothesis is that, via Model-to-Execution software solutions, logistics business processes can be described in business terms and then fully automated. To test this hypothesis, we perform an actual implementation project across multiple vendor systems. The paper introduces the concept of Model-to-Execution, describes the case study, and discusses some of our lessons learned.
Condition-based Maintenance and the product improvement process
Computers in Industry Volume 61, Issue 9, December 2010, Pages 813-832 Trends and Challenges in Production and Supply Chain Management The evolution of enterprise services is changing the approach for enabling Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) business processes. Enabling systems are migrating to process- and service-oriented solutions. In particular, the paper demonstrates how the new technologies can be used to enable a critical process that links vehicle health maintenance to PLM. Our hypothesis is that Condition-based Maintenance (CBM) and PLM integration is achievable through composite application design. The key process for linking CBM to PLM must convert prognostic and diagnostic information into actionable information that can be directed into a project-level PLM environment that supports the end-to-end product improvement process. To test this hypothesis, we designed a composite application within the context of a Small Business Innovative Research project that is sponsored by the US government. This paper motivates the problem from the strategic level to the implementation level and describes the successful test of the hypothesis.
Cross-Functional Process Integration and the Integrated Data Environment
“Cross-Functional Process Integration and the Integrated Data Environment,” In J.D. Elzinga, T. Gulledge, and C.-Y. Lee (Editors), Business Process Engineering: Advancing the State of the Art. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999 (with R. Sommer and M. Tarimcilar). This paper demonstrates how to plan for large-scale enterprise integration implementations using modern integrated planning methodologies. The focus is on cross-functional process integration in a manufacturing environment. The subjects covered are: Integrated Data Environment, system alignment and standard software solutions, planning for the Integrated Data Environment, vertical and horizontal integration, and integrated enterprise modeling.
Enterprise Service Oriented Architectures and End-to-End Business Process Execution
Published in Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 268-277 (2007). [This paper was the subject of a keynote presentation with the same name at the 36th International Conference on Computers & Industrial Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, 2006.] The evolution of Enterprise Services is changing the approach for enabling capability delivery. Enabling systems continue to migrate to process- and service-oriented solutions, requiring new approaches for architecting composite solutions. This paper presents, using examples from our work, the state-of-the art in architecting end-to-end solutions for delivering logistics capability from the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to the customer. The topic is important, because the implementation paradigm is shifting from families of interfaced systems to process-oriented composite applications, and many analysts are predicting that this new system integration paradigm will prevail. This transition is well underway in the private sector and is in the early stages of transition in the public sector. The paper provides a review of new service-oriented concepts within the context of some implementation projects in the USA.
Integrated Electronic Commerce: An International Laboratory for Business-to-Business Integration
“Integrated Electronic Commerce: An International Laboratory for Business-to-Business Integration,” In Global Production Management, Kai Mertins, Oliver Krause, and Burkhard Schallock (Editors). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999 (with P. Chang, P. Litvak, P. Norton, R. Sommer, A.J.C. Trappey, and C. Trappey). Critical issues are emerging in the establishment of virtual environments for international business-to-business e-commerce. One issue is whether all parties (primes and suppliers) can manage extended relationships with information provided by integrated standard software. The issue is more complicated with the inclusion of international trading partners. The joint industry/university laboratory that is described in this paper was designed to explore these complex issues. This paper describes the project, our shared international laboratory, the planned and completed experiments, and interesting results that have been uncovered while executing the project.
Interfaces for Enterprise Solutions
This paper was published in the Journal of Enterprise Architecture, Vol. 1, No. 1, August 2005. This document discusses fundamental interface concepts, interface models, and interface cost analysis. By having an understanding of interface technology and cost factors, system architects are better equipped to design and deploy cost-effective interface models.
Investment in Knowledge: A Generalization of Learning by Experience
"Investment in Knowledge: A Generalization of Learning by Experience," Management Science, Vol. 40 (1994), 947-958. (with J.R. Dorroh and N.K. Womer). Learning is often perceived as a cost-reducing endogenous by-product of production processes. In many applications this by-product is modeled as a learning curve; that is, a simple function of time or of cumulative production experience. In an earlier paper we presented an alternative explanation where managers decide what resources to devote to knowledge acquisition. In this paper we expand those results to a situation using a more flexible production technology and emphasizng discounted cost. Our model explains resource and output behavior for a firm that is producing specialized units to contractual order. However, the results are quite general and have implications for investment in research, engineering, science and technology, software development, and worker training. We provide examples where the cost-minimizing producer will choose to invest in knowledge creation early in the production program and then have the rate of investment decline over time. Other interesting results are noted by examining the optimal time paths of the control and state variables in a comparative dynamics analysis.
Learning and Production Costs: An Application of a Cost Prediction Model to a Fighter Airframe Program
"Learning and Production Costs: An Application of a Cost Prediction Model to a Fighter Airframe Program," Engineering Costs and Production Economics, Vol. 12 (1987), 389-400 (with J.D. Camm and N.K. Womer). This research reports on the application of a cost prediction model to a fighter airframe program. The model considers the effects of learning and production rate changes on discounted program cost. The results indicate that this application compares favorably with those of other programs reported previously.
Modeling an Enterprise Services Enabled Product Improvement Process for Military Vehicles
Paper no. DETC2008-49922 pp. 1277-1291 (15 pages) doi:10.1115/DETC2008-49922 ASME 2008 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE2008) August 3–6, 2008 , Brooklyn, New York, USA Sponsor: Design Engineering Division and Computers in Engineering Division Volume 3: 28th Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Parts A and B ISBN: 978-0-7918-4327-7. The evolution of Enterprise Services is changing the approach for enabling Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM). Enabling systems are migrating to process- and service-oriented solutions, requiring new approaches for architecting composite applications. This paper uses examples from our work to present the state-of-the art in architecting end-to-end solutions for delivering PLM and SCM capabilities from an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to the customer. The paper also demonstrates how emerging methodologies, methods, and tools are used to support the implementation of composite applications, as well as the limitations of working in a mixed legacy/modern environment during the lengthy transition period to the new service-oriented computing paradigm. The hypothesis of this paper is that design and supply chain integration is achievable through composite application design, development, and deployment. This paper discusses the design, development, and deployment of a composite application to address the product improvement process for military vehicles, and it lays the foundation for testing the hypothesis. Based on these initial analyses we conclude that the composite approach to PLM is not only feasible, but may provide the only practical solution (given current technologies) to a very complex supply chain information sharing problem.
Process Coupling in Business Process Engineering
"Process Coupling in Business Process Engineering," Knowledge and Process Management, Vol. 6 (1999), 158-165 (with R. Sommer). Many Business Process Engineering (BPE) methods focus on information flows, function identification and process decomposition. Although these concepts are important, the authors have found that the consistent assignment of performance measures, policies, and regulations are of equal importance. Inconsistent performance measures and policy formulation and review result in significant implementation problems in a BPE effort. This paper identifies Process Coupling as the result of inconsistent performance measures, policies, and regulations; and with the help of a case study, demonstrates how the resulting implementation problems may be alleviated.
Product Lifecycle Management in Defense Organizations: Challenges and Opportunities
by Gulledge, Thomas — last modified May 06, 2010 01:08 AM Contributors: Wael Hafez, Senior Enterprise Architect, Enterprise Integration, Inc., Raj Iyer, Deputy Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Army Materiel Command, John Nyere, Special Assistant for Supply Chain Systems, Office of the Secretary of Defense, U.S. Department of Defense. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) presents many unique challenges in defense organizations. These challenges relate culture, organization, processes, data, and others. While some of these characteristics are not unique to defense organizations, some are specifically unique. This paper identifies and describes the challenges, and then presents an approach to requirements definition and solution design that addresses the described challenges. A closed-loop PLM model requires that the government take ownership of the product, post production, and assume every aspect of product support. This would include supply, procurement, maintenance, operations, engineering, configuration and fleet management functions. (C) 2010 Enterprise Integration, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Presented at The IFIP WG5.1 7th International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management, BIBA University of Bremen, 12-14 July 2010.
Production Rate, Learning, and Program Costs: Survey and Bibliography
"Production Rate, Learning, and Program Costs: Survey and Bibliography," Engineering Costs and Production Economics, Vol. 11 (1987), 223-236 (with B. Khoshnevis). This survey contains items that we have found useful in our integrative research on production rate, learning, and cost. The references given relate to aggregate planning, assembly line balancing, and overhead redistribution. The survey is narrow in that it only relates to learning augmented production models that contain production rate as a decision variable. General references to the learning curve are not included. We make no claims that this survey is complete. Our efforts have concentrated on the economics, industrial engineering, and operations research literature. The authors solicit omitted items for inclusion in future revisions.
Promoting Electronic Commerce in the Defense Industry
“Promoting Electronic Commerce in the Defense Industry,” In Electronic Commerce: Opportunities and Challenges, S.M. Rahman and M.S. Raisinghani (Editors). Hershey, Pennsylvania: Idea Group Publishing, 2000, 85-101 (with C.V. Trappey, A.J.C. Trappey, and R. Sommer). Beginning in 1993, when the U.S. Federal Government proposed the "framework of electronic commerce (EC)," the call went out for the wide-scale deployment of EC solutions in government. The Department of Defense immediately became the center of attention since it has the largest procurement budget of all. Initiatives were launched to move from a paper-driven procurement process to an electronic, on-line concept satisfying federal mandates. However, the defense industry consists of thousands of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that were far from ready to conduct business with the government electronically. In order to help the Department of Defense (DoD) and its suppliers to comply with the EC mandates, 17 Electronic Commerce Resource Centers (ECRCs) were established across the U.S. to transfer process improving and enabling EC technologies to small and medium sized businesses and government agencies. Each ECRC comprises business partners (and several university partners) that provide EC outreach, training and technical support to DoD supply chains. The goal of the nationwide network of centers is to facilitate the transition from paper-dependent supply chains to fully electronic-based procurement environments. In order for SMEs to do business with the U.S. government electronically, the mission of the ECRC must grow beyond training and outreach to hands-on implementation and intervention in SMEs.
Public Sector Reengineering: Applying Lessons Learned in the Private Sector to the U.S. Department of Defense
“Public Sector Reengineering: Applying Lessons Learned in the Private Sector to the U.S. Department of Defense,” In Business Process Reengineering: A Managerial Perspective, V. Grover and W.J. Kettinger (Editors). Harrisburg: Idea Group Publishing, 1995 (with D.H. Hill and E.H. Sibley). The management of the US Department of Defense (DoD) enterprise must change. Years of under-funding have led to a wide gap between enterprise support requirements and resources. Private sector firms have faced similar choices. This paper shows how the public enterprise can be changed. Our hypothesis is that private sector implementations of standard software will lead to increased effectiveness and efficiency in public sector organizations. Sufficient detail is provided on how to transition to a modern integrated public sector enterprise, and the steps for implementing such a project are outlined, following standard private sector implementation practices. To explain the problem and solution, the DoD installation management enterprise is used as an example.
Resource Efficiency in Aircraft Production
"Resource Efficiency in Aircraft Production," Naval Research Logistics, Vol. 35 (1988), 443-58 (with B. Dhar). This article examines measures of economic efficiency in aircraft production. In particular, a type of nonlinear frontier estimation is contrasted with more traditional methods for estimating a dynamic cost function. This cost function is grounded in economic theory, and it is consistent with knowledge of the aircraft-production process. The model includes the effects of both learning and production rate on total program costs. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated with an example that relates to the acquisition of military equipment. It is shown through various sensitivity analyses that an alternative procurement policy for an aircraft program could have resulted in increased efficiency and hence a lower total program cost to the government.
Service-oriented concepts: bridging between managers and technologists
Thomas Gulledge, Greg Deller, (2009) "Service-oriented concepts: bridging between managers and technologists", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 109 Iss: 1, pp. 5-15. The purpose of this paper is to provide a common understanding of service-oriented concepts to enable unambiguous discussion around service-oriented architecture (SOA). Managers often have limited understanding of SOA, and for some reason, technologists seem to have difficulty explaining the concept using terminology and analogies that managers can understand. This paper addresses the long-standing communications gap between managers and technologists as they attempt to evaluate how SOA or SOA-related investments can add business value.